Uzbekistan is located in the hinterlands of Central Asia and is also known as the Republic of Uzbekistan. Covering an area of 447,400 square kilometers, it has a population of 25.8 million with 129 ethnic groups, of whom 78.8% are Uzbeks, with the rest Russian, Tajik, and so on. Residents are Muslim. Uzbek is the official language, and Russian is also spoken. The currency is is the som. Tashkent (Toshkent) is the capital.
The national flag of Uzbekistan has five colored strips, which are, from the top down, pale blue, light red, white, light red, and light green. In the top left corner of the light blue section, there is a crescent and twelve five-pointed stars.
In the Year 9 – 1 century, the Uzbek nation was formed. In the 15th century, the Mongols conquered Uzbekistan. In the 14th century, Amir Timur went to Samarkand to establish the capital of the empire. From the 16th to 18th century, the Khanates of Bukhara, Khiva, and Kokand were in the country. In the 1860s and 1870s, part of the territory (now the state of Fergana SamarkandI) were absorbed into Russia. From 1917-1918, Soviet power was established, and in October 1924, the Uzbek Soviet Socialist Republic was established and joined the Soviet Union. On August 31, 1991, Uzbekistan declared independence.
Economy and Culture
Uzbekistan’s primary agriculture is cotton planting and sericulture development; the main food crops are rice and wheat. Animal husbandry is mainly sheep, and a large number of them. Primary industries are fuel, machine building, ferrous metallurgy, chemicals, and light industry. Rich in natural resources, Uzbekistan’s pillar industries are the “Four Golden”: gold, platinum (cotton), “black gold” (oil), and “blue gold” (natural gas). The high, stable yield and fine quality of cotton is world-famous.
Uzbek people like to play Tamboura, drums, and other musical instruments, and also like to sing and dance. Each dynasty built palaces, mosques, tombs, and other ancient buildings such as the many seminaries, including Bukhara, that have been included in the World Heritage List.
The famous ancient Central Asian city is located in Zeravshan valley, and the Silk Road runs through the city. In the late 14th century, it was the capital of the Timurid Empire. The city has many institutions of higher education, including an Archaeological Institute. Preserved here are many of the 14th-17th century architectural monuments of the Timurid Empire, including the most magnificent palace, built as a mausoleum.
A world-famous saltwater lagoon, located on the border between Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan, the Aral Sea reached 66,000 square kilometers wide, but, as a source of the Amu Darya and Syr Darya, the Sea was drained for agricultural irrigation, leading to reduced lake area. As the rivers flow and with increased drought, water salinity has increased, now reaching 8 ‰ to 15 ‰.
Bukhara is an ancient city of Central Asia. Oasis Centre in Bukhara was built in the 1st century BC. From the 16th century to 1920, the dynasties of the Khanate of Bukhara built many buildings. Whether a palace, mosque, mausoleum, seminary, or the city’s marketplace, enjoy the “museum city.” There are 140 surviving ancient Islamic buildings of rich color. The oldest is from the late 9th to 10th century, the Ismail – Saman Ni tomb, which is representative of Central Asian architecture.