Ukraine is located in central Europe, with the Black Sea and Sea of Azov to the south. Covering an area of 603,700 square kilometers, it has a population of 47.1 million, with a total of 110 ethnicities, mainly Ukrainians. Others include Russians, Belarussians, Jews, and Crimean Tatars. Ukrainian’s primary religions are Orthodox and Catholicism. The currency is the hryvnias. Kiev (Kyjv) is the capital.
The flag consists of a blue rectangle on top, with an equal-sized yellow rectangle below.
From 1237 to 1241 AD, the Mongolian Golden Horde (Batu Khan) occupied Kiev, and the city was destroyed. In 1654, the Cossack leader Khmelnitski signed the “Pereiaslav Peace Treaty” with the Russian tsar. Ukraine and Russia were formally joined. Since then, though, Ukraine has had its own government and has played a substantive role. In 1922, Ukraine joined the Soviet Union (Western Ukraine joined in 1959). On August 24, 1991, Ukraine declared independence.
Economy and Culture
Ukraine is an industrial power, and agriculture is very developed. It is a world leader in metallurgy, energy, chemicals, military industry, machinery manufacturing, electronics and other industries, as well as in scientific and technical fields. Ukraine Donets River and Dnieper River are centers of mining, metallurgy, heavy machinery manufacturing, electric power industry, and so on. The strength of the machinery industry is extremely famous. Kharkov and Odessa Zeyi are the centers of production for agricultural machinery as well as for the main shipbuilding industry.
Ukraine’s fertile land and mild climate mean that agriculture and animal husbandry are well-developed. The country is known as “the breadbasket of Europe.” Main crops include wheat, corn, sugar beet, sunflower, grapes, and long fiber linen.
Ukrainian women’s shirts are embroidered with all kinds of patterns. Girls wear festive flowers and branches woven into a crown.
Ukrainian people are very attentive to decoration, with rooms covered with painted murals both inside and out. Flower embroidery on hand towels and long thick carpet weaving decorate room thresholds.
Black Pearl – Yalta
Located on the southern Crimean peninsula, surrounded by mountains, the southern Black Sea, is said to be the “Crimean Pearl,” surrounded by forest and flowers in the spring. Here there is a Gothic castle, the oriental Jiqijinnai Palace, the former residence of the great writer Anton Chekhov, as well as the Turkey Castle “Swallow’s nest.” There is the Aytodor lighthouse on the headland, not far from Tsar Nicholas II’s summer palace in Yalta. In February 1945, the United States, Britain and Russian leaders signed the famous “Yalta Agreement” here.
Nikita Botanic Garden
Built in 1812, Nikita is a Crimean town. The Botanical Garden covers an area of 96 hectares, said to be the “green treasure house of Crimea.” Currently, the park has more than 18,000 kinds of plants, including tropical, alpine, and arid desert plants. A tall Mexican Yu Knutsson, up to 140 meters tall, is the “God of the world.” The gardens also have American firs, century-old palm trees, 500-year-old olive trees, the Millennium Babylonian weeping cherry trees and rhubarb, and a 500-year-old, yew with a crown diameter of more than 150 meters. There are various forms of cactus, agave, line orchids, flowers, and herbs. The Park is divided into central, coastal, and grassland areas according to their different soil, with each area collecting different kinds of trees.