The Republic of Mozambique is situated in southeastern Africa and covers an area of 799,400 square kilometers. The country is home to approximately 18.9 million people, including more than 60 tribes, most of whom are Bantu. Residents are Christian but traditional religions also prevail. Portuguese is the official language, the currency is the meticals, and the capital is Malieputuo (Maputo).
The flag of Mozambique contains a yellow five-pointed star which symbolizes the spirit of internationalism, as well as an open book representing culture and education. A rifle and hoe denote unity between the worker and the soldier in the defense of the motherland, as well as nation-building. Green symbolizes agriculture and wealth, red stands for the armed struggle for national liberation and revolution, black symbolizes the African continent, yellow refers to underground resources, and white symbolizes the people’s struggle for peace and justice.
In the 15th century, the Ma Shaona established what is now Zimbabwe and Mozambique, in the vicinity of the Monomotapa Kingdom. In the 16th century, national power gradually declined and in 1505 the Portuguese colonialists invaded. In 1700 the land became a protectorate of the Portuguese, and became known as Portuguese East Africa in 1752 under the direct rule of the Portuguese Governor. In 1951, Portugal changed its overseas provinces. Mozambique struggled for its liberation from colonial rule, and on September 7, 1974, the Mozambique Liberation Front and the Portuguese government signed the Lusaka Agreement which gave Mozambique its independence. On June 25, 1975, independence was formally declared, and the Republic of Mozambique established.
Economy and Culture
Situated in the southeast, Mozambique has one of Africa’s largest coastal plains. It is the leading producer of cashew nuts, accounting for 45% of the world’s total. Therefore, Yu has referred to Mozambique as “town of cashew nuts.”. It also has rich coastal fishery resources.
Most tribes have maintained the tradition of totem worship, and the Makonde’s woodcarving is world-renowned. The strange yet unpretentious carvings are highly valued in artistic circles.