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Countries in Oceania

Oceania - the smallest continent
Oceania, which lies both above and below the equator, covers an area of 8,971,000 square kilometers, accounting for 6% of the global land area. It was named by the Danish geographer Malte, with the name meaning “ocean in the land”. The continent has a total of 29 countries and regions, with a combined population of about 52.25 million. Residents are mainly descendants of European settlers and indigenous people, and most speak English. Residents of the three island groups of Polynesia, Micronesia, and Melanesia also speak local languages, with most people believing in Christianity.

Oceania’s History
European explores discovered Oceania in the 16th century, although the land had been inhabited by indigenous people for thousands of years. From the early 16th to the 18th century, the Spanish, British, and Dutch arrived here. In 1788 the British established a colony in what is now Australia. Since then, European immigrants have arrived and settled on the islands of Oceania, one after another. From 1842 onwards, France, Britain, Germany and other European countries annexed and divided up the Pacific islands, with the exception of Tonga, which was under American dominion. Since World War II the people of Oceania have been exposed to the rest of the world, primarily through the international media, and Western Samoa, Nauru, the Fiji Islands and other island nations have achieved independence.

Oceania’s terrain
Australian continent is largely comprised of desert and semi-desert expanses. The Polynesian Islands are predominantly volcanic islands and atolls, with the Micronesian Islands mainly atoll. The Melanesian islands are mostly continental, continental margin arc-shaped mountain line extension part of the archipelago, deep sea basin between the arc and deep trench.
Oceania has less rivers than other continents. River basin outflows account for 48% of the total area. Many lakes on the mainland of Australia are man-made, whereas New Zealand's lakes are tectonic lakes, and lava has caused naturally damns to form. Many Pacific islands are surrounded by coral reefs, forming lagoons.

Oceania’s Climate
Most of Oceania is comprised of tropical and subtropical regions, with the exception of South Show and inland areas of Australia, which have temperate and continental climates. There are also some area that have tropical maritime climate. Although most of the vertical radiation in the sun under the ocean but the brink of not too hot. The average temperature is mostly 25C to 28C, although in Queensland temperatures can get as hot as 55C, the hottest in Oceania. Precipitation throughout the area is diverse. Australia has an arid climate, with an annual average precipitation of 250 mm . Oceania also has frequent typhoons, especially near the Caroline Islands in Polynesia, considered to be the birthplace of the typhoon.

The Great Barrier Reef
The beautiful Great Barrier Reef is the world's largest reef, situated off the coast of Queensland in Australia, which stretches more than 2,000 kilometers from north Brisbane to the Gulf of Papua. It is the planet's largest living coral, and formed approximately one million years ago. Tens of thousands of marine organisms live in the here, including 1,500 species of fish, more than 4,000 kinds of cartilage biology, more than 350 kinds of coral, and various birds and turtles.

Northern Mariana Islands (U.S.)
Northern Mariana Islands is a U.S. territory located in the Western Pacific. Covering an area of 477 square kilometers, the islands have a combined population of 7.8 million people, most of whom are of Asian origin. Residents are Roman Catholic and the official language is English, with the Chamorro and Caroline languages also spoken. The currency is U.S. dollar and the capital is Saipan.

History

The Portuguese navigator Magellan arrived here in 1521, and by 1565 the islands were occupied by Spain. In 1899 Spain sold Germany the Marianas, which were later occupied by the Japanese During World War II, in 1944, the U.S. invaded, and the islands have remained in their possession since. The United Nations in 1947 will pay the United States hosted the Northern Mariana. In December 1990, the Northern Mariana Islands became a federal territory, adopting the U.S. flag.

Malieshaoer Islands - tiny islands countries
The Republic of Malieshaoer is located in the Pacific Islands, covering an area of 181 square kilometers. It has a population of 57,000, mostly Micronesian. Residents are Protestant or Christian, with English the official language. The currency is the U.S. dollar, and the capital is Majuro.

National flag

The Marshall Islands’ flag is blue, red and white, with a sun in the top left corner The 24 rays of light symbolize the country's 24 administrative regions.

History

Western sailors arrived at the islands in the early 16th century, and in 1788 they were name after the British Captain, John Marshall. In 1886 they became a German protectorate, and during World War I, they were occupied by Japan. From 1944-1947 in the United States actually marching pipe, and in July 1947, the Marshall Islands to the United States managed by the United Nations, after the Republic of Palau, Northern Mariana Islands and the Federated States of Micronesia Pacific Islands Trust to form the four political entities. September 17, 1991, the United Nations Member States.

Economy and cultural customs

The islands have an abundance of coral reefs, and Kwajalein Atoll lagoon is the world’s largest lagoon, covering an area of 1700 square kilometers.
Economic income is mainly dependent on the assistance of the United States, Japan and other countries and international organizations. Rich in fishing resources, fishing and fish farming has great growth potential.

American Samoa
American Samoa, also known as East Samoa, is located in the southern Pacific Ocean, east of the international date line. A land area of 199 square kilometers is home to a population of 57,000, most of whom are Polynesian. Residents are Protestant or Catholic and speak Samoan, although English is also widely spoken. The currency is the U.S. dollar and the capital is Pago Pago.

American Samoa has been inhabited since 1000 BC. In 1722 the Dutch arrived, and since then the island has passed between Britain, Germany, and the United States. In 1899, according to an agreement between the British, Americans, and Germans, East Samoa became a U.S. colony. 922 years in the territory of U.S. non-establishment..In July, 1951, American Samoa was placed under the jurisdiction of the Interior Office of Insular Affairs.

Economy and cultural customs

Over 90% of the land is mountainous, and therefore it is a relatively barren island, only producing a small amount of bananas, taro, and vegetables. Food, fruit, meat, vegetables, and daily necessities cannot be produced, and thus the economy is dependent on assistance from the U.S. government and its tuna processing industry.

Niue (New) - Polynesia the reef
Niue is located in the South Pacific, east of the international dateline, and has a total land area of 260 square kilometers. It has a population of 1,800 people, most of whom are Polynesian. Many residents believe in Kelixiya Niue teaching. English and General Niue are the most common languages, the currency is the New Zealand dollar and the capital is Alofi.

History

Polynesians arrive on Niue around 1,000 years ago. In 1774, the British discovered the island, and in 1900 it became a British protectorate. In 1901, as part of the Cook Islands, it came under New Zealand ownership. A separate administrative body was set up in 1904, and on October 19, 1974, an internal self-government was established. The Government of Niue has full executive and legislative power, with defense and foreign affairs from New Zealand, which provides assistance. Citizens of Niue and New Zealand enjoy dual citizenship.

Economy and cultural customs

Niue lacks natural resources, but its major industries are agriculture, tourism, and fisheries. Niue produces coconuts, lemons, and bananas, but is heavily dependent on New Zealand for aid and expatriate remittances. Niue's environment and industrial pollution do not create diving conditions that attract tourists.
The Head of State is the Queen of England, who is represented by the Governor of New Zealand. Niue enjoys free medical care, with medical expenses funded by New Zealand.

French Polynesia - the pearl of the Pacific
French Polynesia is located in the south-central Pacific, and is comprised of 120 islands. A total land area of 4,167 square kilometers is home to a population of 266,000, most of whom are Polynesian. Residents are Protestant of Catholic, and French and Tahitian are the official languages, although other Polynesian languages are also spoken. The currency is the euro, and the capital is Papeete.

History

In 1880, the French established the colony of Tahiti. Until the 19th century, the other islands were also occupied by law. In 1957 the country became a French overseas territory, changing its name formally to French Polynesia. In 1977 an internal self-government was established, but France remained in charge of foreign affairs and defense, retaining financial and judicial powers. A French High Commissioner was appointed to replace the Governor as the supreme head of the executive management of the Government Committee. In October 1990, France passed constitutional amendments, changing the country’s status from overseas territory into a Polynesian overseas province.

Economy and cultural customs

The economy is dominated by coconut production. It also has rich fishery resources, especially tuna and pearls, with the latter a booming industry, and French Polynesia’s black pearl world-renowned.

Cook Islands (New) - South Pacific Orchard
The Cook Islands are located in the South Pacific, covering an area of 240 square kilometers. The islands have a population of about 18,000, with another 4.7 million people living in New Zealand, about l million people living in Australia. Most of the inhabitants are Maori, and are Protestant. The most common languages are General Cook Islands Maori and English. The currency is the New Zealand dollar currency and the capital is Avarua.

History

The islands were first inhabited by the Maori, but in 1733, British explorer Captain Cook arrived, giving the islands his name. In 1888 the islands became a British protectorate, and in June 1901 became part of New Zealand's dependent territories. In 1965 an internal self-government was established, with full legislative and executive power, although New Zealand retained responsibility for defense and foreign affairs. Island citizens are both British subjects as well as New Zealand citizens.

Economy and cultural customs

The economy is dominated by agriculture, tourism, fishing, and black pearl farming. The island is rich in coconuts, citrus fruits, bananas, pineapples, breadfruit, and other tropical fruits. The fruit processing industry is integral to the economy, as is clothing and handicrafts.


Tokelau (New Zealand)
Tokelau is located in the southeast Pacific Ocean, and covers an area of 12 square kilometers. It has a population of about 1,400 people, mainly Polynesians, with 70% of the population adherents of Protestantism. English and Tokelauan are the most common languages, and the currency is that of New Zealand.. Office of the Minister with the heads of the administrative center of rotation located on the three atolls. The island is owned by New Zealand.

Economy and cultural customs

The main sources of income are the export of coconuts, stamps, coins, handicrafts and fishing, the latter of which requires U.S. vessels to pay Tokelau a fee.

Pitcairn Islands (British)
The Pitcairn Islands are a British overseas territory, located in the Pacific between Peru and Polynesia. Covering a total the land area of 4.7 square kilometers, the residents are primarily Christian. The official language is English, the currency is that of New Zealand currency, and the capital is Adamstown.

Economy and cultural customs

The Pitcairn Islands do not have taxes, with government revenues gained from the sale of stamps and coins, investment profits, occasional grants from the United Kingdom, and fishing licenses from foreign vessels.

All Countries in Oceania

 

 

 

 

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